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The Consumer Effect
The globalization of economics means that any local market is inextricably tied to the global economy. The ongoing dollar decline, lately spurred by changes in China's market, clearly demonstrates how interdependent the world’s markets have become. We have to discover the right way to act within an interconnected system—and what’s a better example to study than Nature, the mother of perfect, integral systems?
They (Almost) Hit the Jackpot
Myron Scholes and Robert Merton had everything scientists could ever wish for: a Nobel Prize in Economics, tenured professorships at the world’s most prestigious universities and fame. But all of this waned when an opportunity presented itself in the mid-nineties. A well-known veteran broker dared the pair to put their genius into practice and make lots of money.
Scholes and Merton were certain that playing the market was like rolling dice: you can easily measure the probability for each and every occurrence. Their foolproof plan was to accurately predict the market through statistical studies.
The two scientists gathered a group of distinguished math and economy professors. Then, along with their ambitious broker, they established a private hedge fund (an investment fund that aims to profit under any market conditions). They called it Long-Term Capital Management or LTCM. The fund developed an investment policy based on mathematical models, established its headquarters in an upscale suburb near Wall Street, and business started rolling.
In four short years, the fund became the envy of every banker and trader on Wall Street. Veteran stock market sharks could not believe their eyes as the fund yielded an astounding 40% return a year with no losses or fluctuations. It seemed that the scientists had discovered a magic formula, identifying patterns in a world of unpredictability. In other words, they had found a way to make a whole lot of money.
Even the ever-skeptical investment bankers were impressed by the group. In fact, they were so impressed that they offered to leverage the fund with a credit of $100 billion without even asking for the usual guarantees. The fund got financially linked to every bank on Wall Street and set up an intricate chain of connections where every link affected the entire chain.
LTCM seemed invincible until one fateful night in September of '98, when the bubble suddenly burst. The disaster began with a seemingly innocuous event—the devaluation of the Thai baht. This triggered a sell-off across Asian and Eastern Europe markets, and the snowball just kept rolling until it eventually reached LTCM. The fund suffered total collapse, causing unprecedented distress to economic systems worldwide.
It seemed that the market was swiftly heading for the point of no return. In a dramatic step, Alan Greenspan, the legendary U.S. Federal Reserve Chairman, convened the heads of every large bank of Wall Street and Europe for an emergency closed-door meeting. Finally, only the economists’ prayers and a very costly decision to rescue LTCM, managed to save the world from a deep economic crisis.
Collapse is Contagious
The current dollar decline is reminiscent of the situation that led to the collapse of LTCM. Although the dollar's been on a downward spiral for quite some time, the most dramatic fall in its value was spurred by a change in China's policy. China, pragmatically concerned with its own economy, started shifting away from the dollar currency and diversifying its investments. As the echoes of this decision reverberated throughout the world, countries like Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Venezuela, Sudan, Iran and Russia began considering a shift away from the dollar in order to safeguard their assets.
A similar trend unfolded during the recent Sub-Prime Mortgage crisis (a mortgage given to risky borrowers) that begun in the U.S. and spread throughout the world. The effects of this fiasco are far from over. The meltdown has affected stock markets, banks, hedge funds and companies the world over. The biggest shock waves were felt in Europe, Asia, Canada and Australia. The crisis also affected many corporations, manufacturers, marketing companies and even hi tech firms.
Over and over, the sense of a global economic crisis resurfaces. All the attempts to predict economic trends have proved futile. Today, the million dollar question is: How do we establish a truly viable and stable economic system?
The Systems Between Us
The answer, says the wisdom of Kabbalah, is actually quite simple. Best of all, you do not have to be a brilliant economist to figure it out. However, you do have to realize that we and everything we do, including economics, has to follow the laws of the universal system we call Nature.
Kabbalists explain that Nature's overarching plan is to bring all of its parts, including us, into perfect unity. In the framework of human society, this unity means that the work of every single individual benefits the whole.
The best example of such behavior are the cells of a living body: they are interconnected and give to each other in order to benefit the body as a whole. In this perfect system, the body provides a cell with everything it needs and the cell is fully dedicated to ensuring the body’s well-being. In his article, "Building the Future Society," Kabbalist Baal HaSulam writes that “…each member is obligated by Nature to receive his or her needs from society, and also to benefit society by his or her work.”
The artificial systems we have established in human society stand in complete contrast to Nature’s plan. At the core of human behavior stands the ego, which puts these systems into motion. Our egos prefer constricted, personal interest over the benefit of the whole and advocate the pursuit of wealth, honor and control, even (or especially) at the expense of others.
All this bears a direct relation to economics. In our ego-based economic system, self-interests of capital and shareholders are the companies’ top priority. Even when companies contributes to the community, one cannot help wondering whether such an act is not in fact, a basic desire to glorify its name in the media for more publicity and a burnished reputation.
Globalization + Ego = Dead End
After thousands of years of egoistic development, we finally find ourselves in a tight corner: the more we try to profit from each other, the more we discover our connection to each other, much like the cells of a living body described above.
LTCM’s collapse a decade ago, the recent credit crisis, and the current dollar decline demonstrate just how interconnected our systems are. The smallest fluctuation in a local market can put the entire global market in turbulence.
But what’s more is that every action we make as consumers affects a whole gamut of other systems. Just like the "Butterfly Effect" metaphor for the mathematical chaos, "The Consumer Effect" works the same way.
When Rebecca from Philadelphia goes shopping at her neighborhood mall, she significantly affects the lives of many people around the world. The products she purchases may determine whether a factory will continue to operate, whether a family will have to relocate, and whether a child will be saved from starvation. When Dan from Charlottesville flips through the TV channels at home, he affects the entire advertising market. One click of the remote control can affect the jobs and lives of thousands of people.
Globalization has made our world so fragile that the smallest crack can cause it to shatter. Local events like the mortgage crisis in the U.S., a natural disaster, a terrorist attack, and military tension in the Persian Gulf directly affect prices of international merchandise and threaten global economic stability.
The Way Out
“And the wonder about it is that Nature, like a proficient judge, punishes us according to our development, for our eyes can see, that the more humanity develops, the greater are the pain and suffering of attaining our keep and sustenance.”
Baal HaSulam, "The Peace"
The wisdom of Kabbalah gives us a much broader perspective on our situation. It explains that we are like children in this sandbox called Earth. And Nature is developing us gradually, much like a parent who teaches his children: the more we grow up, the more we are expected to play nicely.
Kabbalah explains that humanity is going through two parallel processes. On the one hand, Nature is pushing us to unite and work as one body. On the other hand, humanity’s egoism is steadily growing, and the fact that these two processes are happening simultaneously is not a coincidence.
One way or another, humanity will have to invert its egoism and work as one body. But instead of having Nature push to make this change, Kabbalists suggest that we take control over the process and master it ourselves.
Kabbalists explain that through educational systems we can raise people's awareness that humanity is like a multi-celled body, and that we are all interconnected. By learning about the overall system of Nature and its principles, people will understand what changes to implement in our social systems in order to balance them with Nature.
By acting in accordance with Nature, we will prosper in every realm of our lives, including economics. Fortunately, we already have the science that explains Nature’s underlying plan. It’s called “the wisdom of Kabbalah.”
Gov't planning to close most ulpans, privatize Hebrew studies
By Anshel Pfeffer, Haaretz Correspondent
Tags: Absorption Ministry, Ulpan
The Immigrant Absorption Ministry intends to close down most ulpans - Hebrew study programs for new immigrants - while laying off hundreds of teachers and helping immigrants learn Hebrew at private schools, senior officials told Haaretz Thursday.
The sweeping reform comes in response to data indicating that the current method has failed, and that most new immigrants - olim - who completed ulpan courses do not speak Hebrew well enough.
In recent years Israel has taken in around 20,000 new immigrants annually, of which 8,000 adults are enrolled at dozens of ulpans (children learn Hebrew in school). Every new immigrant over 18 can elect to study Hebrew at an ulpan and receive 500 class hours taught by Education Ministry teachers - part of the absorption basket of services.
Surveys conducted in recent years by the Immigrant Absorption Ministry found that most olim who complete ulpan studies speak Hebrew at a low or mediocre level, and that less than a third read and write at a reasonable to good level. It turns out that less than 60 percent of olim complete their ulpan studies, compared with 24 percent who never attend ulpan and 17 percent who drop out early on.
The ministry thus set up an inter-ministerial committee a year ago to review the subject. A majority of committee members concluded that upgrading the existing system would not work, and that responsibility for Hebrew instruction for new immigrants should be moved from the Education Ministry to a new state body.
Based on the committee's recommendations, the immigrant absorption minister, Jacob Edery, is weighing the merits of closing most ulpans and enabling olim to learn Hebrew at private facilities to be supervised by the new authority in charge of Hebrew instruction.
"Our goal is to introduce a serious reform and place at new immigrants' disposal the most effective tools for acquiring the language. Teaching methods can be improved substantially," Edery said. He added, however, that "we are not ruling out seeking other alternatives such as issuing a tender for private schools."
The ministry's preferred method is granting vouchers to olim, which they could use to study Hebrew at a supervised private facility.
Teaching methods are not the only problem with ulpans, according to the ministry's director-general, Erez Halfon. "Ulpans are a bad fit with the lifestyles of new immigrants," he said. "Many of them simply don't have the time to attend ulpan in the mornings. They prefer to go to work, sometimes even at two jobs."
Halfon said the ministry is looking into what the other entities that teach Hebrew have to offer. "We will make sure that olim have many more study options and more convenient hours throughout the country, so they can work at the same time," he said.
Among other things, the Immigrant Absorption Ministry is considering making Hebrew lessons mandatory for olim.
"We are thinking of making a certain part of the absorption basket of services conditional, and an immigrant who does not study Hebrew would not be eligible for that part," Halfon said. He added that incentives would be provided for those who meet the criteria.
Shlomit Amichai, director-general of the Education Ministry, told the Knesset Immigration and Absorption Committee earlier this week that the ministry is in favor of the proposed reform. However, Amichai told Haaretz yesterday that "the subject must be studied in the next two months."
Ulpans employ some 800 Hebrew teachers, who stand to lose their jobs if the reform goes through. The Education Ministry has already slashed the budget for teaching Hebrew to new immigrants from NIS 79 million in 2007 to NIS 41 million next year.
The cutback means that olim will be taught only basic Hebrew, and that professional terminology classes will be dropped from the curriculum for olim with professions, such as doctors and engineers. The current budget is enough to cover courses only until the middle of next year.
Another change the Immigrant Absorption Ministry is promoting is to establish study centers for children of olim, where they would learn Hebrew for several months before being integrated into local schools.
According to director-general Halfon, the Absorption Ministry has found that these children "sit in class and do not understand anything, and do not make friends either. It would be better for them to miss curriculum material for several months and come to their schools when they can speak Hebrew." The Education Ministry opposes this idea.
The most nurturing experience an oleh could have wanted
By Ariel Zilber
Tags: Hebrew, aliyah, Israel, Ulpan
We were a unique group at Ulpan Etzion in January 2004, new immigrants from the four corners of the earth. If the Zionist enterprise is history's most ambitious lab experiment, then we were the fresh batch of mice thrown into the volatile cage. At this run-down yet reputable school in West Jerusalem, we could not have asked for a better, more nurturing facility.
From the school's social worker who took on my HMO after it wouldn't process my health insurance without proper forms from the army, to the ulpan director who assured us we were more Israeli than the natives because we were here by choice, to the Hebrew teacher who explained the difference between the verb structures, ulpan was a new home away from home, a cultural kaleidoscope that brought together gentiles from Uzbekistan, Argentine soccer fanatics, Brazilian engineering students, and young, flamboyantly wealthy French Jews.
During class, one kippah-wearing oleh from Uruguay broke out in applause when the teacher showed television coverage from the period of Rabin's assassination. One secular Brazilian girl who spent summers at Hashomer Hatzair found little in common with her Orthodox roommate. Nor was she amused when the sign she had carried to a Peace Now rally was torn into pieces by Israel's newest volunteers for the West Bank's hilltop youth.
Although palpable, the politics of the day did not dominate the ulpan dynamic. The friendships forged cross cultural and linguistic barriers that would not have been broken in any other social structure. Where else could the Ghanaian son of a Russian Jewish mother meet a Colombian girl who would later become his bride?
Ulpan did more than just instruct us about proper spelling or warn us to tell the cab driver to turn on the meter before he offered to rip us off. It gave us our first cold dose of the Israeli reality that we grapple with to this day.
Ţăranul Român vine la Târg în Bucureşti cu produse bune, curate, tradiţionale
Plăcintă de casă, zacuscă, caş dulce, caş afumat, consumer research, icoane pe sticlă, gem de rubarbă, cadouri de Crăciun, cozonaci, pâine de casă, cârnaţi de Pleşcoi, trasabilitatea alimentelor, muzică, tombolă şi premii, palincă, vin fiert, mămăligă, afumătură, food standards, ciuperci marinate, chestionare, norme de igienă, nuci şi prune uscate... toate acestea, plus atmosfera de Crăciun, vor ocupa Piaţa Amzei în fiecare sâmbătă şi duminică din luna decembrie, până la Crăciun, la Târgul Ţăranului Român.
Grupul de iniţiativă „Radu Anton Roman” lansează un program de valorizare a produselor tradiţionale româneşti, care sprijină constituirea şi dezvoltarea unei pieţe moderne de produse tradiţionale – în principal alimentare.
În cadrul acestui proiect se lansează „Târgul Ţăranului Român”, care se va desfăşura în Piaţa Amzei, în weekend-urile de 8-9, 15-16 şi 22-23 decembrie 2007, în colaborare cu Muzeul Ţăranului Român şi Primăria Sectorului 1. Târgul Ţăranului Român va reveni apoi în Piaţa Amzei, începând cu 1 martie 2008, o dată la două săptămâni.
Camera Deputatilor a adoptat legea PC privind protectia animalelor
Camera Deputatilor, for decizional, a adoptat ieri, cu larga majoritate, 216 de voturi pentru, unul împotriva si o abtinere, proiectul de lege al PC referitor la protectia animalelor, prilej pentru alesi de a se felicita singuri pentru consensul care i-a reunit dincolo de rivalitatile de partid. La aflarea rezultatului ca legea a fost adoptata cu larga majoritate, unul din initiatorii legii, senatorul Marius Marinescu, PC, le-a multumit colegilor sai. “În numele animalelor si necuvântatorilor, va urez un Craciun Fericit”, a spus el, stârnind imediat ironia lui Bogdan Olteanu care i-a spus lui Marinescu “sper ca v-ati referit la necuvântatoare, nu la necuvântatori”. Una din cele mai hilare interventii le-a avut si deputatul PRM Marcu Tudor. Tudor a spus ca nimeni nu îi întrece pe parlamentari sa voteze legi care prind la public si i-a îndemnat pe deputati sa dea dovada ca iubesc animalele prin propriile lor fapte. “Duceti-va prin stabilimente, luati câte un câine, doi, câte o pisicuta!”, a spus fratele liderului PRM. La final, el le-a urat colegilor sai sa
ajunga sa aiba atâtia câini câti familia sa, adica “vreo 45”. Si deputatul PD Ioan Oltean a aratat ca tot grupul a fost de acord cu aceasta lege si ca de acum înainte “animalele or sa aiba mai multa liniste, mai multa protectie”. Deputatul PSD Aura Vasile a tinut sa-i aminteasca lui Oltean ca altadata seful sau de partid, acum presedintele tarii, în calitatea sa de primar “dadea tonul la nimicirea animalelor de pe strada”. “Toti parlamentarii PSD au avut acum aceeasi pozitie ca atunci când Basescu ucidea câini în Bucuresti”, a mai spus ea. Într-o nota discordanta, deputatul UDMR Marton Arpad a recunoscut ca abtinerea acordata proiectului i-a apartinut si si-a motivat votul prin inconsistenta proiectului, opinând ca ar putut fi adoptat unul si mai bun. Pentru a sustine acest proiect legislativ, câteva sute de iubitori de animale, printre care cântaretul Mihai Constantinescu si alti membri ai unor organizatii non-guvernamentale care actioneaza pentru protectia animalelor, au asistat la sedinta de luni. Ei îi abordau pe hol pe deputati, oferindu-le câte o garoafa rosie si cerându-le sa voteze favorabil acest proiect de lege. Conform noului act normativ, care modifica Legea 205/2004, constituie infractiunii detinerea si comercializarea de animale salbatice, cu exceptia gradinilor zoologice, folosirea animalelor pentru cersetorie, omorârea animalelor, abandonul, organizarea de lupte între animale sau cu animale, maltratatrea si schingiuirea acestora, despartirea puilor de mama pâna la vârsta de minimum opt saptamâni, precum si interventiiile chirurgicale destinate modificarii aspectului unui animal sau altor scopuri precum cuparea urechilor, sectionarea corzilor vocale, ablatia ghearelor, coltilor, ciocului si dintilor. În plus, de acum înainte detinatorii de animale au obligatia de a le asigura acestora asistenta medicala. Eutanasierea este interzisa, cu exceptia animalelor cu boli incurabile, constatate de medicul veterinar. Sanctiunile pentru rele tratamente aplicate animalelor pot ajunge pâna la 10.000 RON si confiscarea animalului, dar se introduce si pedeapsa cu închisoarea de la 3 luni la 1 an.
Thingmababy writes about a wonderful piece of baby bedding accessory, called the Zaky infant pillow. The infant pillow is designed for premature babies who are not in contact with the mother. The Zaky infant pillow simulates mom's loving hands.
The infant pillow has provisions for the mother to inprint her scent on teh pillow. Yamile C. Jackson is the founder of Zaky infant pillow.
Yamile after having a premature baby, wanted to imitate the weight, size, touch, feel and smell of a mother's hand and forearm to reassure babies and promote better sleep. The pillow is billed as having variety of hospital-friendly features, such as containing filling which doesn't get warm and overheat in an incubator or warmer.
How does Israel's legal system protect human rights and basic freedoms?
The Declaration of Independence (May 1948) states that the State of Israel will be based on freedom, justice and peace as envisaged by the prophets of Israel; it will ensure complete equality of social and political rights to all its inhabitants irrespective of religion, race or sex; it will guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture; it will safeguard the Holy Places of all religions; and it will be faithful to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations.
Though the Declaration is not legally binding, it is expressed in the Supreme Court's interpretation of laws. It is a task of this court, the watchdog of Israeli democracy, to safeguard human and civil rights.
On attaining independence (1948), the Knesset (Israel's parliament) passed the Law and Administration Ordinance, which stipulates that the laws prevailing in the country prior to statehood would remain in force, insofar as they did not contradict the principles embodied in the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, or would not conflict with laws to be enacted by the Knesset. Thus the legal system includes remnants of Ottoman law (in force until 1917), British Mandate laws, which incorporate a large body of English common law, elements of Jewish religious law and some aspects of other systems. However, the dominant characteristic of the legal system is the large body of the uniquely Israeli independent statutory and case law that has been evolving since 1948.
Israel's constitutional system is based on two fundamental tenets: that the State is democratic and that it is also Jewish. These principles are rooted in the 1948 Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, which also established Israel's commitment to guarantee equal social and political rights to all its citizens, irrespective of religion, race or ethnic background. Although the Declaration is not a binding constitutional document, the 1992 Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty explicitly provides that the human rights it articulates shall be interpreted "in the spirit of the principles in the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel" and that the purpose of the Basic Law is to establish "the values of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state".
Following the establishment of the State, the Knesset was empowered to enact a series of basic laws relating to all aspects of life, which would eventually be brought together to form a formal written constitution. Most chapters have already been passed as Basic Laws outlining the fundamental features of government such as the President, the Knesset, the Government, the Judicature, the Israel Defense Forces, the State Comptroller, Freedom of Occupation (dealing with the right to follow the vocation of one's choosing) and Human Dignity and Liberty, which addresses protections against violation of a person's life, body or dignity. The normative superiority of Basic Laws over ordinary legislation was confirmed in 1995, when the Supreme Court assumed the power of judicial review of Knesset legislation violating a Basic Law.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181
November 29, 1947
The General Assembly, Having met in special session at the request of the mandatory Power to constitute and instruct a Special Committee to prepare for the consideration of the question of the future Government of Palestine at the second regular session;
Having constituted a Special Committee and instructed it to investigate all questions and issues relevant to the problem of Palestine, and to prepare proposals for the solution of the problem, and
Having received and examined the report of the Special Committee (document A/364)(1) including a number of unanimous recommendations and a plan of partition with economic union approved by the majority of the Special Committee,
Considers that the present situation in Palestine is one which is likely to impair the general welfare and friendly relations among nations;
Takes note of the declaration by the mandatory Power that it plans to complete its evacuation of Palestine by l August 1948;
Recommends to the United Kingdom, as the mandatory Power for Palestine, and to all other Members of the United Nations the adoption and implementation, with regard to the future Government of Palestine, of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union set out below;
The Security Council take the necessary measures as provided for in the plan for its implementation;
The Security Council consider, if circumstances during the transitional period require such consideration, whether the situation in Palestine constitutes a threat to the peace. If it decides that such a threat exists, and in order to maintain international peace and security, the Security Council should supplement the authorization of the General Assembly by taking measures, under Articles 39 and 41 of the Charter, to empower the United Nations Commission, as provided in this resolution, to exercise in Palestine the functions which are assigned to it by this resolution;
The Security Council determine as a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression, in accordance with Article 39 of the Charter, any attempt to alter by force the settlement envisaged by this resolution;
The Trusteeship Council be informed of the responsibilities envisaged for it in this plan;
Calls upon the inhabitants of Palestine to take such steps as may be necessary on their part to put this plan into effect;
Appeals to all Governments and all peoples to refrain from taking any action which might hamper or delay the carrying out of these recommendations, and
Authorizes the Secretary-General to reimburse travel and subsistence expenses of the members of the Commission referred to in Part 1, Section B, Paragraph I below, on such basis and in such form as he may determine most appropriate in the circumstances, and to provide the Commission with the necessary staff to assist in carrying out the functions assigned to the Commission by the General Assembly.*
The General Assembly,
Authorizes the Secretary-General to draw from the Working Capital Fund a sum not to exceed 2,000,000 dollars for the purposes set forth in the last paragraph of the resolution on the future government of Palestine.
PLAN OF PARTITION WITH ECONOMIC UNION
Part I. - Future Constitution and Government of Palestine
A. TERMINATION OF MANDATE, PARTITION AND INDEPENDENCE
The Mandate for Palestine shall terminate as soon as possible but in any case not later than 1 August 1948.
The armed forces of the mandatory Power shall be progressively withdrawn from Palestine, the withdrawal to be completed as soon as possible but in any case not later than 1 August 1948.
The mandatory Power shall advise the Commission, as far in advance as possible, of its intention to terminate the mandate and to evacuate each area. The mandatory Power shall use its best endeavours to ensure that an area situated in the territory of the Jewish State, including a seaport and hinterland adequate to provide facilities for a substantial immigration, shall be evacuated at the earliest possible date and in any event not later than 1 February 1948.
Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem, set forth in Part III of this Plan, shall come into existence in Palestine two months after the evacuation of the armed forces of the mandatory Power has been completed but in any case not later than 1 October 1948. The boundaries of the Arab State, the Jewish State, and the City of Jerusalem shall be as described in Parts II and III below.
The period between the adoption by the General Assembly of its recommendation on the question of Palestine and the establishment of the independence of the Arab and Jewish States shall be a transitional period.
B. STEPS PREPARATORY TO INDEPENDENCE
A Commission shall be set up consisting of one representative of each of five Member States. The Members represented on the Commission shall be elected by the General Assembly on as broad a basis, geographically and otherwise, as possible.
The administration of Palestine shall, as the mandatory Power withdraws its armed forces, be progressively turned over to the Commission, which shall act in conformity with the recommendations of the General Assembly, under the guidance of the Security Council. The mandatory Power shall to the fullest possible extent coordinate its plans for withdrawal with the plans of the Commission to take over and administer areas which have been evacuated.
In the discharge of this administrative responsibility the Commission shall have authority to issue necessary regulations and take other measures as required.
The mandatory Power shall not take any action to prevent, obstruct or delay the implementation by the Commission of the measures recommended by the General Assembly.
On its arrival in Palestine the Commission shall proceed to carry out measures for the establishment of the frontiers of the Arab and Jewish States and the City of Jerusalem in accordance with the general lines of the recommendations of the General Assembly on the partition of Palestine. Nevertheless, the boundaries as described in Part II of this Plan are to be modified in such a way that village areas as a rule will not be divided by state boundaries unless pressing reasons make that necessary.
The Commission, after consultation with the democratic parties and other public organizations of the Arab and Jewish States, shall select and establish in each State as rapidly as possible a Provisional Council of Government. The activities of both the Arab and Jewish Provisional Councils of Government shall be carried out under the general direction of the Commission.
If by 1 April 1948 a Provisional Council of Government cannot be selected for either of the States, or, if selected, cannot carry out its functions, the Commission shall communicate that fact to the Security Council for such action with respect to that State as the Security Council may deem proper, and to the Secretary-General for communication to the Members of the United Nations.
Subject to the provisions of these recommendations, during the transitional period the Provisional Councils of Government, acting under the Commission, shall have full authority in the areas under their control including authority over matters of immigration and land regulation.
The Provisional Council of Government of each State, acting under the Commission, shall progressively receive from the Commission full responsibility for the administration of that State in the period between the termination of the Mandate and the establishment of the State's independence.
The Commission shall instruct the Provisional Councils of Government of both the Arab and Jewish States, after their formation, to proceed to the establishment of administrative organs of government, central and local.
The Provisional Council of Government of each State shall, within the shortest time possible, recruit an armed militia from the residents of that State, sufficient in number to maintain internal order and to prevent frontier clashes.
This armed militia in each State shall, for operational purposes, be under the command of Jewish or Arab officers resident in that State, but general political and military control, including the choice of the militia's High Command, shall be exercised by the Commission.
The Provisional Council of Government of each State shall, not later than two months after the withdrawal of the armed forces of the mandatory Power, hold elections to the Constituent Assembly which shall be conducted on democratic lines.
The election regulations in each State shall be drawn up by the Provisional Council of Government and approved by the Commission. Qualified voters for each State for this election shall be persons over eighteen years of age who are (a) Palestinian citizens residing in that State; and (b) Arabs and Jews residing in the State, although not Palestinian citizens, who, before voting, have signed a notice of intention to become citizens of such State.
Arabs and Jews residing in the City of Jerusalem who have signed a notice of intention to become citizens, the Arabs of the Arab State and the Jews of the Jewish State, shall be entitled to vote in the Arab and Jewish States respectively.
Women may vote and be elected to the Constituent Assemblies.
During the transitional period no Jew shall be permitted to establish residence in the area of the proposed Arab State, and no Arab shall be permitted to establish residence in the area of the proposed Jewish State, except by special leave of the Commission.
The Constituent Assembly of each State shall draft a democratic constitution for its State and choose a provisional government to succeed the Provisional Council of Government appointed by the Commission. The Constitutions of the States shall embody Chapters 1 and 2 of the Declaration provided for in section C below and include, inter alia, provisions for:
Establishing in each State a legislative body elected by universal suffrage and by secret ballot on the basis of proportional representation, and an executive body responsible to the legislature;
Settling all international disputes in which the State may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered;
Accepting the obligation of the State to refrain in its international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purpose of the United Nations;
Guaranteeing to all persons equal and non-discriminatory rights in civil, political, economic and religious matters and the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including freedom of religion, language, speech and publication, education, assembly and association;
Preserving freedom of transit and visit for all residents and citizens of the other State in Palestine and the City of Jerusalem, subject to considerations of national security, provided that each State shall control residence within its borders.
The Commission shall appoint a preparatory economic commission of three members to make whatever arrangements are possible for economic co-operation, with a view to establishing, as soon as practicable, the Economic Union and the Joint Economic Board, as provided in section D below.
During the period between the adoption of the recommendations on the question of Palestine by the General Assembly and the termination of the Mandate, the mandatory Power in Palestine shall maintain full responsibility for administration in areas from which it has not withdrawn its armed forces. The Commission shall assist the mandatory Power in the carrying out of these functions. Similarly the mandatory Power shall co-operate with the Commission in the execution of its functions.
With a view to ensuring that there shall be continuity in the functioning of administrative services and that, on the withdrawal of the armed forces of the mandatory Power, the whole administration shall be in the charge of the Provisional Councils and the Joint Economic Board, respectively, acting under the Commission, there shall be a progressive transfer, from the mandatory Power to the Commission, of responsibility for all the functions of government, including that of maintaining law and order in the areas from which the forces of the mandatory Power have been withdrawn.
The Commission shall be guided in its activities by the recommendations of the General Assembly and by such instructions as the Security Council may consider necessary to issue.
The measures taken by the Commission, within the recommendations of the General Assembly, shall become immediately effective unless the Commission has previously received contrary instructions from the Security Council.
The Commission shall render periodic monthly progress reports, or more frequently if desirable, to the Security Council.
The Commission shall make its final report to the next regular session of the General Assembly and to the Security Council simultaneously.
A declaration shall be made to the United Nations by the Provisional Government of each proposed State before independence. It shall contain, inter alia, the following clauses:
The stipulations contained in the Declaration are recognized as fundamental laws of the State and no law, regulation or official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation or official action prevail over them.
Chapter 1: Holy Places, Religious Buildings and Sites
Existing rights in respect of Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall not be denied or impaired.
In so far as Holy Places are concerned, the liberty of access, visit, and transit shall be guaranteed, in conformity with existing rights, to all residents and citizen of the other State and of the City of Jerusalem, as well as to aliens, without distinction as to nationality, subject to requirements of national security, public order and decorum.
Similarly, freedom of worship shall be guaranteed in conformity with existing rights, subject to the maintenance of public order and decorum.
Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall be preserved. No act shall be permitted which may in an way impair their sacred character. If at any time it appears to the Government that any particular Holy Place, religious, building or site is in need of urgent repair, the Government may call upon the community or communities concerned to carry out such repair. The Government may carry it out itself at the expense of the community or community concerned if no action is taken within a reasonable time.
No taxation shall be levied in respect of any Holy Place, religious building or site which was exempt from taxation on the date of the creation of the State.
No change in the incidence of such taxation shall be made which would either discriminate between the owners or occupiers of Holy Places, religious buildings or sites, or would place such owners or occupiers in a position less favourable in relation to the general incidence of taxation than existed at the time of the adoption of the Assembly's recommendations.
The Governor of the City of Jerusalem shall have the right to determine whether the provisions of the Constitution of the State in relation to Holy Places, religious buildings and sites within the borders of the State and the religious rights appertaining thereto, are being properly applied and respected, and to make decisions on the basis of existing rights in cases of disputes which may arise between the different religious communities or the rites of a religious community with respect to such places, buildings and sites. He shall receive full co-operation and such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the exercise of his functions in the State.
Chapter 2: Religious and Minority Rights
Freedom of conscience and the free exercise of all forms of worship, subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals, shall be ensured to all.
No discrimination of any kind shall be made between the inhabitants on the ground of race, religion, language or sex.
All persons within the jurisdiction of the State shall be entitled to equal protection of the laws.
The family law and personal status of the various minorities and their religious interests, including endowments, shall be respected.
Except as may be required for the maintenance of public order and good government, no measure shall be taken to obstruct or interfere with the enterprise of religious or charitable bodies of all faiths or to discriminate against any representative or member of these bodies on the ground of his religion or nationality.
The State shall ensure adequate primary and secondary education for the Arab and Jewish minority, respectively, in its own language and its cultural traditions.
The right of each community to maintain its own schools for the education of its own members in its own language, while conforming to such educational requirements of a general nature as the State may impose, shall not be denied or impaired. Foreign educational establishments shall continue their activity on the basis of their existing rights.
No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any citizen of the State of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in religion, in the Press or in publications of any kind, or at public meetings.(3)
No expropriation of land owned by an Arab in the Jewish State (by a Jew in the Arab State)(4) shall be allowed except for public purposes. In all cases of expropriation full compensation as fixed by the Supreme Court shall be said previous to dispossession.
Chapter 3: Citizenship, International Conventions and Financial Obligations
1. Citizenship Palestinian citizens residing in Palestine outside the City of Jerusalem, as well as Arabs and Jews who, not holding Palestinian citizenship, reside in Palestine outside the City of Jerusalem shall, upon the recognition of independence, become citizens of the State in which they are resident and enjoy full civil and political rights. Persons over the age of eighteen years may opt, within one year from the date of recognition of independence of the State in which they reside, for citizenship of the other State, providing that no Arab residing in the area of the proposed Arab State shall have the right to opt for citizenship in the proposed Jewish State and no Jew residing in the proposed Jewish State shall have the right to opt for citizenship in the proposed Arab State. The exercise of this right of option will be taken to include the wives and children under eighteen years of age of persons so opting.
Arabs residing in the area of the proposed Jewish State and Jews residing in the area of the proposed Arab State who have signed a notice of intention to opt for citizenship of the other State shall be eligible to vote in the elections to the Constituent Assembly of that State, but not in the elections to the Constituent Assembly of the State in which they reside.
2. International conventions
The State shall be bound by all the international agreements and conventions, both general and special, to which Palestine has become a party. Subject to any right of denunciation provided for therein, such agreements and conventions shall be respected by the State throughout the period for which they were concluded.
Any dispute about the applicability and continued validity of international conventions or treaties signed or adhered to by the mandatory Power on behalf of Palestine shall be referred to the International Court of Justice in accordance with the provisions of the Statute of the Court.
3. Financial obligations
The State shall respect and fulfil all financial obligations of whatever nature assumed on behalf of Palestine by the mandatory Power during the exercise of the Mandate and recognized by the State. This provision includes the right of public servants to pensions, compensation or gratuities.
These obligations shall be fulfilled through participation in the Joint Economic Board in respect of those obligations applicable to Palestine as a whole, and individually in respect of those applicable to, and fairly apportionable between, the States.
A Court of Claims, affiliated with the Joint Economic Board, and composed of one member appointed by the United Nations, one representative of the United Kingdom and one representative of the State concerned, should be established. Any dispute between the United Kingdom and the State respecting claims not recognized by the latter should be referred to that Court.
Commercial concessions granted in respect of any part of Palestine prior to the adoption of the resolution by the General Assembly shall continue to be valid according to their terms, unless modified by agreement between the concession-holders and the State.
Chapter 4: Miscellaneous Provisions
The provisions of chapters 1 and 2 of the declaration shall be under the guarantee of the United Nations, and no modifications shall be made in them without the assent of the General Assembly of the United Nations. Any Member of the United Nations shall have the right to bring to the attention of the General Assembly any infraction or danger of infraction of any of these stipulations, and the General Assembly may thereupon make such recommendations as it may deem proper in the circumstances.
Any dispute relating to the application or interpretation of this declaration shall be referred, at the request of either party, to the International Court of Justice, unless the parties agree to another mode of settlement.
D. ECONOMIC UNION AND TRANSIT
The Provisional Council of Government of each State shall enter into an undertaking with respect to Economic Union and Transit. This undertaking shall be drafted by the Commission provided for in section B, paragraph 1, utilizing to the greatest possible extent the advice and cooperation of representative organizations and bodies from each of the proposed States. It shall contain provisions to establish the Economic Union of Palestine and provide for other matters of common interest. If by 1 April 1948 the Provisional Councils of Government have not entered into the undertaking, the undertaking shall be put into force by the Commission.
The Economic Union of Palestine
The objectives of the Economic Union of Palestine shall be:
A customs union;
A joint currency system providing for a single foreign exchange rate;
Operation in the common interest on a non-discriminatory basis of railways inter-State highways; postal, telephone and telegraphic services and ports and airports involved in international trade and commerce;
Joint economic development, especially in respect of irrigation, land reclamation and soil conservation;
Access for both States and for the City of Jerusalem on a non-discriminatory basis to water and power facilities.
There shall be established a Joint Economic Board, which shall consist of three representatives of each of the two States and three foreign members appointed by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. The foreign members shall be appointed in the first instance for a term of three years; they shall serve as individuals and not as representatives of States.
The functions of the Joint Economic Board shall be to implement either directly or by delegation the measures necessary to realize the objectives of the Economic Union. It shall have all powers of organization and administration necessary to fulfil its functions.
The States shall bind themselves to put into effect the decisions of the Joint Economic Board. The Board's decisions shall be taken by a majority vote.
In the event of failure of a State to take the necessary action the Board may, by a vote of six members, decide to withhold an appropriate portion of the part of the customs revenue to which the State in question is entitled under the Economic Union. Should the State persist in its failure to cooperate, the Board may decide by a simple majority vote upon such further sanctions, including disposition of funds which it has withheld, as it may deem appropriate.
In relation to economic development, the functions of the Board shall be planning, investigation and encouragement of joint development projects, but it shall not undertake such projects except with the assent of both States and the City of Jerusalem, in the event that Jerusalem is directly involved in the development project.
In regard to the joint currency system, the currencies circulating in the two States and the City of Jerusalem shall be issued under the authority of the Joint Economic Board, which shall be the sole issuing authority and which shall determine the reserves to be held against such currencies.
So far as is consistent with paragraph 2(b) above, each State may operate its own central bank, control its own fiscal and credit policy, its foreign exchange receipts and expenditures, the grant of import licences, and may conduct international financial operations on its own faith and credit. During the first two years after the termination of the Mandate, the Joint Economic Board shall have the authority to take such measures as may be necessary to ensure that - to the extent that the total foreign exchange revenues of the two States from the export of goods and services permit, and provided that each State takes appropriate measures to conserve its own foreign exchange resources - each State shall have available, in any twelve months' period, foreign exchange sufficient to assure the supply of quantities of imported goods and services for consumption in its territory equivalent to the quantities of such goods and services consumed in that territory in the twelve months' period ending 31 December 1947.
All economic authority not specifically vested in the Joint Economic Board is reserved to each State.
There shall be a common customs tariff with complete freedom of trade between the States, and between the States and the City of Jerusalem.
The tariff schedules shall be drawn up by a Tariff Commission, consisting of representatives of each of the States in equal numbers, and shall be submitted to the Joint Economic Board for approval by a majority vote. In case of disagreement in the Tariff Commission, the Joint Economic Board shall arbitrate the points of difference. In the event that the Tariff Commission fails to draw up any schedule by a date to be fixed, the Joint Economic Board shall determine the tariff schedule.
The following items shall be a first charge on the customs and other common revenue of the Joint Economic Board:
The expenses of the customs service and of the operation of the joint services;
The administrative expenses of the Joint Economic Board;
The financial obligations of the Administration of Palestine, consisting of:
The service of the outstanding public debt;
The cost of superannuation benefits, now being paid or falling due in the future, in accordance with the rules and to the extent established by paragraph 3 of chapter 3 above.
After these obligations have been met in full, the surplus revenue from the customs and other common services shall be divided in the following manner: not less than 5 per cent and not more than 10 per cent to the City of Jerusalem; the residue shall be allocated to each State by the Joint Economic Board equitably, with the objective of maintaining a sufficient and suitable level of government and social services in each State, except that the share of either State shall not exceed the amount of that State's contribution to the revenues of the Economic Union by more than approximately four million pounds in any year. The amount granted may be adjusted by the Board according to the price level in relation to the prices prevailing at the time of the establishment of the Union. After five years, the principles of the distribution of the joint revenue may be revised by the Joint Economic Board on a basis of equity.
All international conventions and treaties affecting customs tariff rates, and those communications services under the jurisdiction of the Joint Economic Board, shall be entered into by both States. In these matters, the two States shall be bound to act in accordance with the majority of the Joint Economic Board.
The Joint Economic Board shall endeavour to secure for Palestine's exports fair and equal access to world markets.
All enterprises operated by the Joint Economic Board shall pay fair wages on a uniform basis.
Freedom of Transit and Visit
The undertaking shall contain provisions preserving freedom of transit and visit for all residents or citizens of both States and of the City of Jerusalem, subject to security considerations; provided that each State and the City shall control residence within its borders.
Termination, Modification and Interpretation of the Undertaking
The undertaking and any treaty issuing therefrom shall remain in force for a period of ten years. It shall continue in force until notice of termination, to take effect two years thereafter, is given by either of the parties.
During the initial ten-year period, the undertaking and any treaty issuing therefrom may not be modified except by consent of both parties and with the approval of the General Assembly.
Any dispute relating to the application or the interpretation of the undertaking and any treaty issuing therefrom shall be referred, at the request of either party, to the International Court Of Justice, unless the parties agree to another mode of settlement.
The movable assets of the Administration of Palestine shall be allocated to the Arab and Jewish States and the City of Jerusalem on an equitable basis. Allocations should be made by the United Nations Commission referred to iii section B, paragraph 1, above. Immovable assets shall become the property of the government of the territory in which they are situated.
During the period between the appointment of the United Nations Commission and the termination of the Mandate, the mandatory Power shall, except in respect of ordinary operations, consult with the Commission on any measure which it may contemplate involving the liquidation, disposal or encumbering of the assets of the Palestine Government, such as the accumulated treasury surplus, the proceeds of Government bond issues, State lands or any other asset.
F. ADMISSION TO MEMBERSHIP IN THE UNITED NATIONS
When the independence of either the Arab or the Jewish State as envisaged in this plan has become effective and the declaration and undertaking, as envisaged in this plan, have been signed by either of them, sympathetic consideration should be given to its application for admission to membership in the United Nations in accordance with article 4 of the Charter of the United Nations.
Part II. - Boundaries
A. THE ARAB STATE
The area of the Arab State in Western Galilee is bounded on the west by the Mediterranean and on the north by the frontier of the Lebanon from Ras en Naqura to a point north of Saliha. From there the boundary proceeds southwards, leaving the built-up area of Saliha in the Arab State, to join the southernmost point of this village. There it follows the western boundary line of the villages of 'Alma, Rihaniya and Teitaba, thence following the northern boundary line of Meirun village to join the Acre-Safad Sub-District boundary line. It follows this line to a point west of Es Sammu'i village and joins it again at the northernmost point of Farradiya. Thence it follows the sub-district boundary line to the Acre-Safad main road. From here it follows the western boundary of Kafr-I'nan village until it reaches the Tiberias-Acre Sub-District boundary line, passing to the west of the junction of the Acre-Safad and Lubiya-Kafr-I'nan roads. From the south-west corner of Kafr-I'nan village the boundary line follows the western boundary of the Tiberias Sub-District to a point close to the boundary line between the villages of Maghar and 'Eilabun, thence bulging out to the west to include as much of the eastern part of the plain of Battuf as is necessary for the reservoir proposed by the Jewish Agency for the irrigation of lands to the south and east.
The boundary rejoins the Tiberias Sub-District boundary at a point on the Nazareth-Tiberias road south-east of the built-up area of Tur'an; thence it runs southwards, at first following the sub-district boundary and then passing between the Kadoorie Agricultural School and Mount Tabor, to a point due south at the base of Mount Tabor. From here it runs due west, parallel to the horizontal grid line 230, to the north-east corner of the village lands of Tel Adashim. It then runs to the northwest corner of these lands, whence it turns south and west so as to include in the Arab State the sources of the Nazareth water supply in Yafa village. On reaching Ginneiger it follows the eastern, northern and western boundaries of the lands of this village to their south-west comer, whence it proceeds in a straight line to a point on the Haifa-Afula railway on the boundary between the villages of Sarid and El-Mujeidil. This is the point of intersection. The south-western boundary of the area of the Arab State in Galilee takes a line from this point, passing northwards along the eastern boundaries of Sarid and Gevat to the north-eastern corner of Nahalal, proceeding thence across the land of Kefar ha Horesh to a central point on the southern boundary of the village of 'Ilut, thence westwards along that village boundary to the eastern boundary of Beit Lahm, thence northwards and north-eastwards along its western boundary to the north-eastern corner of Waldheim and thence north-westwards across the village lands of Shafa 'Amr to the southeastern corner of Ramat Yohanan. From here it runs due north-north-east to a point on the Shafa 'Amr-Haifa road, west of its junction with the road of I'billin. From there it proceeds north-east to a point on the southern boundary of I'billin situated to the west of the I'billin-Birwa road. Thence along that boundary to its westernmost point, whence it turns to the north, follows across the village land of Tamra to the north-westernmost corner and along the western boundary of Julis until it reaches the Acre-Safad road. It then runs westwards along the southern side of the Safad-Acre road to the Galilee-Haifa District boundary, from which point it follows that boundary to the sea.
The boundary of the hill country of Samaria and Judea starts on the Jordan River at the Wadi Malih south-east of Beisan and runs due west to meet the Beisan-Jericho road and then follows the western side of that road in a north-westerly direction to the junction of the boundaries of the Sub-Districts of Beisan, Nablus, and Jenin. From that point it follows the Nablus-Jenin sub-District boundary westwards for a distance of about three kilometres and then turns north-westwards, passing to the east of the built-up areas of the villages of Jalbun and Faqqu'a, to the boundary of the Sub-Districts of Jenin and Beisan at a point northeast of Nuris. Thence it proceeds first northwestwards to a point due north of the built-up area of Zie'in and then westwards to the Afula-Jenin railway, thence north-westwards along the District boundary line to the point of intersection on the Hejaz railway. From here the boundary runs southwestwards, including the built-up area and some of the land of the village of Kh. Lid in the Arab State to cross the Haifa-Jenin road at a point on the district boundary between Haifa and Samaria west of El- Mansi. It follows this boundary to the southernmost point of the village of El-Buteimat. From here it follows the northern and eastern boundaries of the village of Ar'ara rejoining the Haifa-Samaria district boundary at Wadi 'Ara, and thence proceeding south-south-westwards in an approximately straight line joining up with the western boundary of Qaqun to a point east of the railway line on the eastern boundary of Qaqun village. From here it runs along the railway line some distance to the east of it to a point just east of the Tulkarm railway station. Thence the boundary follows a line half-way between the railway and the Tulkarm-Qalqiliya-Jaljuliya and Ras El-Ein road to a point just east of Ras El-Ein station, whence it proceeds along the railway some distance to the east of it to the point on the railway line south of the junction of the Haifa-Lydda and Beit Nabala lines, whence it proceeds along the southern border of Lydda airport to its south-west corner, thence in a south-westerly direction to a point just west of the built-up area of Sarafand El 'Amar, whence it turns south, passing just to the west of the built-up area of Abu El-Fadil to the north-east corner of the lands of Beer Ya'aqov. (The boundary line should be so demarcated as to allow direct access from the Arab State to the airport.) Thence the boundary line follows the western and southern boundaries of Ramle village, to the north-east corner of El Na'ana village, thence in a straight line to the southernmost point of El Barriya, along the eastern boundary of that village and the southern boundary of 'Innaba village. Thence it turns north to follow the southern side of the Jaffa-Jerusalem road until El-Qubab, whence it follows the road to the boundary of Abu-Shusha. It runs along the eastern boundaries of Abu Shusha, Seidun, Hulda to the southernmost point of Hulda, thence westwards in a straight line to the north-eastern corner of Umm Kalkha, thence following the northern boundaries of Umm Kalkha, Qazaza and the northern and western boundaries of Mukhezin to the Gaza District boundary and thence runs across the village lands of El-Mismiya El-Kabira, and Yasur to the southern point of intersection, which is midway between the built-up areas of Yasur and Batani Sharqi.
From the southern point of intersection the boundary lines run north-westwards between the villages of Gan Yavne and Barqa to the sea at a point half way between Nabi Yunis and Minat El-Qila, and south-eastwards to a point west of Qastina, whence it turns in a south-westerly direction, passing to the east of the built-up areas of Es Sawafir Esh Sharqiya and 'Ibdis. From the south-east corner of 'Ibdis village it runs to a point southwest of the built-up area of Beit 'Affa, crossing the Hebron-El-Majdal road just to the west of the built-up area of 'Iraq Suweidan. Thence it proceeds southward along the western village boundary of El-Faluja to the Beersheba Sub-District boundary. It then runs across the tribal lands of 'Arab El-Jubarat to a point on the boundary between the Sub-Districts of Beersheba and Hebron north of Kh. Khuweilifa, whence it proceeds in a south-westerly direction to a point on the Beersheba-Gaza main road two kilometres to the north-west of the town. It then turns south-eastwards to reach Wadi Sab' at a point situated one kilometer to the west of it. From here it turns north-eastwards and proceeds along Wadi Sab' and along the Beersheba-Hebron road for a distance of one kilometer, whence it turns eastwards and runs in a straight line to Kh. Kuseifa to join the Beersheba-Hebron Sub-District boundary. It then follows the Beersheba-Hebron boundary eastwards to a point north of Ras Ez-Zuweira, only departing from it so as to cut across the base of the indentation between vertical grid lines 150 and 160.
About five kilometres north-east of Ras Ez-Zuweira it turns north, excluding from the Arab State a strip along the coast of the Dead Sea not more than seven kilometres in depth, as far as 'Ein Geddi, whence it turns due east to join the Transjordan frontier in the Dead Sea.
The northern boundary of the Arab section of the coastal plain runs from a point between Minat El-Qila and Nabi Yunis, passing between the built-up areas of Gan Yavne and Barqa to the point of intersection. From here it turns south-westwards, running across the lands of Batani Sharqi, along the eastern boundary of the lands of Beit Daras and across the lands of Julis, leaving the built-up areas of Batani Sharqi and Julis to the westwards, as far as the north-west corner of the lands of Beit-Tima. Thence it runs east of El-Jiya across the village lands of El-Barbara along the eastern boundaries of the villages of Beit Jirja, Deir Suneid and Dimra. From the south-east corner of Dimra the boundary passes across the lands of Beit Hanun, leaving the Jewish lands of Nir-Am to the eastwards. From the south-east corner of Beit Hanun the line runs south-west to a point south of the parallel grid line 100, then turns north-west for two kilometres, turning again in a southwesterly direction and continuing in an almost straight line to the north-west corner of the village lands of Kirbet Ikhza'a. From there it follows the boundary line of this village to its southernmost point. It then runs in a southerly direction along the vertical grid line 90 to its junction with the horizontal grid line 70. It then turns south-eastwards to Kh. El-Ruheiba and then proceeds in a southerly direction to a point known as El-Baha, beyond which it crosses the Beersheba-EI 'Auja main road to the west of Kh. El-Mushrifa. From there it joins Wadi El-Zaiyatin just to the west of El-Subeita. From there it turns to the north-east and then to the south-east following this Wadi and passes to the east of 'Abda to join Wadi Nafkh. It then bulges to the south-west along Wadi Nafkh, Wadi 'Ajrim and Wadi Lassan to the point where Wadi Lassan crosses the Egyptian frontier.
The area of the Arab enclave of Jaffa consists of that part of the town-planning area of Jaffa which lies to the west of the Jewish quarters lying south of Tel-Aviv, to the west of the continuation of Herzl street up to its junction with the Jaffa-Jerusalem road, to the south-west of the section of the Jaffa-Jerusalem road lying south-east of that junction, to the west of Miqve Yisrael lands, to the northwest of Holon local council area, to the north of the line linking up the north-west corner of Holon with the northeast corner of Bat Yam local council area and to the north of Bat Yam local council area. The question of Karton quarter will be decided by the Boundary Commission, bearing in mind among other considerations the desirability of including the smallest possible number of its Arab inhabitants and the largest possible number of its Jewish inhabitants in the Jewish State.
B. THE JEWISH STATE
The north-eastern sector of the Jewish State (Eastern Galilee) is bounded on the north and west by the Lebanese frontier and on the east by the frontiers of Syria and Trans-jordan. It includes the whole of the Huleh Basin, Lake Tiberias, the whole of the Beisan Sub-District, the boundary line being extended to the crest of the Gilboa mountains and the Wadi Malih. From there the Jewish State extends north-west, following the boundary described in respect of the Arab State. The Jewish section of the coastal plain extends from a point between Minat El-Qila and Nabi Yunis in the Gaza Sub-District and includes the towns of Haifa and Tel-Aviv, leaving Jaffa as an enclave of the Arab State. The eastern frontier of the Jewish State follows the boundary described in respect of the Arab State.
The Beersheba area comprises the whole of the Beersheba Sub-District, including the Negeb and the eastern part of the Gaza Sub-District, but excluding the town of Beersheba and those areas described in respect of the Arab State. It includes also a strip of land along the Dead Sea stretching from the Beersheba-Hebron Sub-District boundary line to 'Ein Geddi, as described in respect of the Arab State.
C. THE CITY OF JERUSALEM
The boundaries of the City of Jerusalem are as defined in the recommendations on the City of Jerusalem. (See Part III, section B, below).
Part III. - City of Jerusalem(5)
A. SPECIAL REGIME
The City of Jerusalem shall be established as a corpus separatum under a special international regime and shall be administered by the United Nations. The Trusteeship Council shall be designated to discharge the responsibilities of the Administering Authority on behalf of the United Nations.
B. BOUNDARIES OF THE CITY
The City of Jerusalem shall include the present municipality of Jerusalem plus the surrounding villages and towns, the most eastern of which shall be Abu Dis; the most southern, Bethlehem; the most western, 'Ein Karim (including also the built-up area of Motsa); and the most northern Shu'fat, as indicated on the attached sketch-map (annex B).
C. STATUTE OF THE CITY
The Trusteeship Council shall, within five months of the approval of the present plan, elaborate and approve a detailed statute of the City which shall contain, inter alia, the substance of the following provisions:
Government machinery; special objectives. The Administering Authority in discharging its administrative obligations shall pursue the following special objectives:
To protect and to preserve the unique spiritual and religious interests located in the city of the three great monotheistic faiths throughout the world, Christian, Jewish and Moslem; to this end to ensure that order and peace, and especially religious peace, reign in Jerusalem;
To foster cooperation among all the inhabitants of the city in their own interests as well as in order to encourage and support the peaceful development of the mutual relations between the two Palestinian peoples throughout the Holy Land; to promote the security, well-being and any constructive measures of development of the residents having regard to the special circumstances and customs of the various peoples and communities.
Governor and Administrative staff. A Governor of the City of Jerusalem shall be appointed by the Trusteeship Council and shall be responsible to it. He shall be selected on the basis of special qualifications and without regard to nationality. He shall not, however, be a citizen of either State in Palestine.
The Governor shall represent the United Nations in the City and shall exercise on their behalf all powers of administration, including the conduct of external affairs. He shall be assisted by an administrative staff classed as international officers in the meaning of Article 100 of the Charter and chosen whenever practicable from the residents of the city and of the rest of Palestine on a non-discriminatory basis. A detailed plan for the organization of the administration of the city shall be submitted by the Governor to the Trusteeship Council and duly approved by it.
3. Local autonomy
The existing local autonomous units in the territory of the city (villages, townships and municipalities) shall enjoy wide powers of local government and administration.
The Governor shall study and submit for the consideration and decision of the Trusteeship Council a plan for the establishment of special town units consisting, respectively, of the Jewish and Arab sections of new Jerusalem. The new town units shall continue to form part the present municipality of Jerusalem.
The City of Jerusalem shall be demilitarized; neutrality shall be declared and preserved, and no para-military formations, exercises or activities shall be permitted within its borders.
Should the administration of the City of Jerusalem be seriously obstructed or prevented by the non-cooperation or interference of one or more sections of the population the Governor shall have authority to take such measures as may be necessary to restore the effective functioning of administration.
To assist in the maintenance of internal law and order, especially for the protection of the Holy Places and religious buildings and sites in the city, the Governor shall organize a special police force of adequate strength, the members of which shall be recruited outside of Palestine. The Governor shall be empowered to direct such budgetary provision as may be necessary for the maintenance of this force.
A Legislative Council, elected by adult residents of the city irrespective of nationality on the basis of universal and secret suffrage and proportional representation, shall have powers of legislation and taxation. No legislative measures shall, however, conflict or interfere with the provisions which will be set forth in the Statute of the City, nor shall any law, regulation, or official action prevail over them. The Statute shall grant to the Governor a right of vetoing bills inconsistent with the provisions referred to in the preceding sentence. It shall also empower him to promulgate temporary ordinances in case the Council fails to adopt in time a bill deemed essential to the normal functioning of the administration.
Administration of Justice.
The Statute shall provide for the establishment of an independent judiciary system, including a court of appeal. All the inhabitants of the city shall be subject to it.
Economic Union and Economic Regime.
The City of Jerusalem shall be included in the Economic Union of Palestine and be bound by all stipulations of the undertaking and of any treaties issued therefrom, as well as by the decisions of the Joint Economic Board. The headquarters of the Economic Board shall be established in the territory City. The Statute shall provide for the regulation of economic matters not falling within the regime of the Economic Union, on the basis of equal treatment and non-discrimination for all members of thc United Nations and their nationals.
Freedom of Transit and Visit: Control of residents.
Subject to considerations of security, and of economic welfare as determined by the Governor under the directions of the Trusteeship Council, freedom of entry into, and residence within the borders of the City shall be guaranteed for the residents or citizens of the Arab and Jewish States. Immigration into, and residence within, the borders of the city for nationals of other States shall be controlled by the Governor under the directions of the Trusteeship Council.
Relations with Arab and Jewish States. Representatives of the Arab and Jewish States shall be accredited to the Governor of the City and charged with the protection of the interests of their States and nationals in connection with the international administration of thc City.
Arabic and Hebrew shall be the official languages of the city. This will not preclude the adoption of one or more additional working languages, as may be required.
All the residents shall become ipso facto citizens of the City of Jerusalem unless they opt for citizenship of the State of which they have been citizens or, if Arabs or Jews, have filed notice of intention to become citizens of the Arab or Jewish State respectively, according to Part 1, section B, paragraph 9, of this Plan.
The Trusteeship Council shall make arrangements for consular protection of the citizens of the City outside its territory.
Freedoms of citizens
Subject only to the requirements of public order and morals, the inhabitants of the City shall be ensured the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including freedom of conscience, religion and worship, language, education, speech and press, assembly and association, and petition.
No discrimination of any kind shall be made between the inhabitants on the grounds of race, religion, language or sex.
All persons within the City shall be entitled to equal protection of the laws.
The family law and personal status of the various persons and communities and their religious interests, including endowments, shall be respected.
Except as may be required for the maintenance of public order and good government, no measure shall be taken to obstruct or interfere with the enterprise of religious or charitable bodies of all faiths or to discriminate against any representative or member of these bodies on the ground of his religion or nationality.
The City shall ensure adequate primary and secondary education for the Arab and Jewish communities respectively, in their own languages and in accordance with their cultural traditions.
The right of each community to maintain its own schools for the education of its own members in its own language, while conforming to such educational requirements of a general nature as the City may impose, shall not be denied or impaired. Foreign educational establishments shall continue their activity on the basis of their existing rights.
No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any inhabitant of the City of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in religion, in the Press or in publications of any kind, or at public meetings.
Holy Places Existing rights in respect of Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall not be denied or impaired.
Free access to the Holy Places and religious buildings or sites and the free exercise of worship shall be secured in conformity with existing rights and subject to the requirements of public order and decorum.
Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall be preserved. No act shall be permitted which may in any way impair their sacred character. If at any time it appears to the Governor that any particular Holy Place, religious building or site is in need of urgent repair, the Governor may call upon the community or communities concerned to carry out such repair. The Governor may carry it out himself at the expense of the community or communities concerned if no action is taken within a reasonable time.
No taxation shall be levied in respect of any Holy Place, religious building or site which was exempt from taxation on the date of the creation of the City. No change in the incidence of such taxation shall be made which would either discriminate between the owners or occupiers of Holy Places, religious buildings or sites or would place such owners or occupiers in a position less favourable in relation to the general incidence of taxation than existed at the time of the adoption of the Assembly's recommendations.
Special powers of the Governor in respect of the Holy Places, religious buildings and sites in the City and in any part of Palestine.
The protection of the Holy Places, religious buildings and sites located in the City of Jerusalem shall be a special concern of the Governor. With relation to such places, buildings and sites in Palestine outside the city, the Governor shall determine, on the ground of powers granted to him by the Constitution of both States, whether the provisions of the Constitution of the Arab and Jewish States in Palestine dealing therewith and the religious rights appertaining thereto are being properly applied and respected.
The Governor shall also be empowered to make decisions on the basis of existing rights in cases of disputes which may arise between the different religious communities or the rites of a religious community in respect of the Holy Places, religious buildings and sites in any part of Palestine.
In this task he may be assisted by a consultative council of representatives of different denominations acting in an advisory capacity.
D. DURATION OF THE SPECIAL REGIME
The Statute elaborated by the Trusteeship Council the aforementioned principles shall come into force not later than 1 October 1948. It shall remain in force in the first instance for a period of ten years, unless the Trusteeship Council finds it necessary to undertake a re-examination of these provisions at an earlier date. After the expiration of this period the whole scheme shall be subject to examination by the Trusteeship Council in the light of experience acquired with its functioning. The residents the City shall be then free to express by means of a referendum their wishes as to possible modifications of regime of the City.
Part IV. Capitulations
States whose nationals have in the past enjoyed in Palestine the privileges and immunities of foreigners, including the benefits of consular jurisdiction and protection, as formerly enjoyed by capitulation or usage in the Ottoman Empire, are invited to renounce any right pertaining to them to the re-establishment of such privileges and immunities in the proposed Arab and Jewish States and the City of Jerusalem.
Adopted at the 128th plenary meeting:
In favour: 33
Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Byelorussian S.S.R., Canada, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Iceland, Liberia, Luxemburg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Sweden, Ukrainian S.S.R., Union of South Africa, U.S.A., U.S.S.R., Uruguay, Venezuela.
Afghanistan, Cuba, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen.
Argentina, Chile, China, Colombia, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Honduras, Mexico, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia.
(1) See Official Records of the General Assembly, Second Session Supplement No. 11,Volumes l-lV. Return to Text
* At its hundred and twenty-eighth plenary meeting on 29 November 1947 the General Assembly, in accordance with the terms of the above resolution, elected the following members of the United Nations Commission on Palestine: Bolivia, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Panama, and Philippines. Return to Text
(2) This resolution was adopted without reference to a Committee. Return to Text
(3) The following stipulation shall be added to the declaration concerning the Jewish State: "In the Jewish State adequate facilities shall be given to Arabic-speaking citizens for the use of their language, either orally or in writing, in the legislature, before the Courts and in the administration." Return to Text
(4) In the declaration concerning the Arab State, the words "by an Arab in the Jewish State" should be replaced by the words "by a Jew in the Arab State." Return to Text
(5) On the question of the internationalization of Jerusalem, see also General Assembly resolutions 185 (S-2) of 26 April 1948; 187 (S-2) of 6 May 1948, 303 (lV) of 9 December 1949, and resolutions of the Trusteeship Council (Section IV). Return to Text
A Decade of American Foriegn Policy : Basic Documents, 1941-49
Prepared at the request of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
By the Staff of the Committe and the Department of State.
Washington, DC : Government Printing Office, 1950